Complete OpenSSH Client Public Key Solution on Debian
My work requires me to connect to many different SSH servers, and I have different passwords for each server. It's a pain in the neck trying to type in many different passwords everyday. The obvious solution is to use OpenSSH's public key login solution, so passwords are no longer needed to connect to SSH servers from a single client (e.g. my office desktop). Key Generation and Distribution To use public key authentication, it is necessary to generate a pair of keys on your client machine. Do the following as normal user:You will be prompted for typing in passphrase for the private key. As a matter of security, use a different passphrase from your login password to this client machine. This process generates two files in ~/.ssh: id_rsa is your private key, and you should keep it as a secret at all cost! Use this command to make it unreadable for anyone but you:id_rsa.pub is your public key, and you need to distribute this key to whatever server you want to connect to. Basically, you need to upload your id_rsa.pub file to all your SSH servers. You can use your favorite FTP or SFTP software to do that, or use commands such as scp, sftp, or even ftp if the server still supports it. After id_rsa.pub is uploaded to your server. You need to SSH to the server, and create a directory ~/.ssh if it does not exist already, and thento append this public key to authorized_keys file. Now you should be able to SSH to your server without typing in server password, only your private key passphrase is needed. Still, repeatedly type in the same passphrase can quickly become a burden in itself. The solution is to use ssh-agent. Setup ssh-agent ssh-agent is part of the OpenSSH client package. The concept is simple: you only needs to type in passphrase for your private key once, and ssh-agent will remember it and use it whenever you need to make SSH connections in a session. Simple, right? It's actually more than that. Due to the diverse configurations of different Linux systems, setting up ssh-agent to work with one's system is notoriously troublesome. Here, I offer my simple solution that works on Debian sid. On Debian, ssh-agent is by default configured to be launched during X server starting process. In fact, ssh-agent is the program that starts your window manager! For example, ssh-agent startkde is how your X session is started if you use KDE. This way, all your GUI programs inherit ssh-agent environment, and you only need to type in passphrase once to make SSH connections from GUI applications. However, if you try to make SSH connection from a Shell, you do not have ssh-agent environment variables! You may have read people suggesting to use keychain to work with ssh-agent. However, keychain does not work on my Debian sid system. Instead of reusing existing ssh-agent process as it advertises, keychain launches its own ssh-agent, which ruins the whole business. The problem, is that the original ssh-agent launched by Xsession does not export environment variables SSH_AGENT_PID and SSH_AUTH_SOCK. So keychain does not know about the existing ssh-agent process. Of course, there's no way for the first ssh-agent to export environment variables because it's not even live in a shell. Apparently, this problem can be solved by some complex solutions. Read here for an example (this solution does not work for me because on my system lsof cannot reliably find the socket used by ssh-agent). Fortunately, a much simpler solution is suggested by some comments there. This simple solution utilizes ssh-agent's address-binding option "-a". This option allows one to bind the socket used by ssh-agent to any path name. Now you don't have to search for the socket, you can just put the socket where you want it and you always know where it is. For example, I bind it to "/tmp/ssh-agent", then SSH_AUTH_SOCK should be exported as the value "/tmp/ssh-agent". It's that simple! Of course, we need to ask the original ssh-agent launched by Xsession to use this address-binding option. Edit file /etc/X11/Xsession.d/90x11-common_ssh-agent as root, change only one line:Hit Ctrl-alt-backspace to restart X server. Look at your /tmp directory, there should be a file ssh-agent there. Now we need to export the appropriate environment variables in shell. Edit file ~/.bashrc, and add these two lines:When you start a terminal, env command should now have these two variables. After these simple edits, we still miss one thing. That is, ssh-agent is still empty, containing no identities. To add yourself to the agent, use ssh-add command. To be convenient, I just put it in my KDE startup script: ~/.kde/Autostart/start. I also make sure to install a ssh-askpass package (there're a couple of choices), so I get a GUI prompt asking me to type in SSH passphrase once I enter KDE. After this one and only passphrase input, I can SSH as many times and as many places as I want without typing in a single password again. What a relief!
chmod 700 ~/.ssh
ssh-keygen -q -f ~/.ssh/id_rsa -t rsa
chmod go-rwx ~/.ssh/id-rsa
cat id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
export SSH_AGENT_PID=$(pgrep ssh-agent)